Thursday, 4 September 2014

Hugh Slader Glanville - WW1

More information has come to light regarding Hugh Slader Glanville.

It seems he went from Greenhill School to study Agriculture at Aberystwyth University (thanks to Steve John for the info). 

H.S.Glanville is also recorded on the War Memorial at the University, as well as at Greenhill.

We were also contacted by a Mr Powell whose grandfather fought alongside H.S.Glanville at Gaza.



It seems Benjamin Morgan rescued H.S.Glanville from the field of battle when he had been injured. This was such a daring deed of bravery under fire that Benjamin was awarded the Military Medal.  Unfortunately H.S.Glanville died from his wounds.

Benjamin Morgan was from Boncath and was presented with the MM by the Duke of Connaught in Jerusalem on 20th March 1918.

Benjamin Morgan survived the war unscathed, only to later die from a fall in 1927.

Hugh Slader Glanville must have left a lasting impression on his friend Benjamin who later went on to name his son 'Glanville' in honour of his lost comrade.

It seems the Military Medal left the family after Benjamin Morgan died in an accident aged just 30 years - leaving his wife with two young children to bring up alone.

Sunday, 27 April 2014

Old Village Rhyme - by Charles F.Shepperd 1933

Old Village Rhyme - by Charles F.Shepperd 1933.

This was an old village rhyme recorded by Charles Shepperd in his little booklet 'St Elidyr, Crunwere, A Historical Note 1933'.

This rhyme is connected with the stream that divides Crunwere parish form its neighbours and is also the dividing line between Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire:

Nanny the Bog and Cold Well,
Castle Ely House and Castle Ely Mill;
Garness House and Garness Mill,
Bowman's Pit and Perlin Hill;
Ledgerland and the Tucking mill,
Cats' Nest and Donkey Hill.
'All the land form Garness House to Cats' Nest is in the parish.  Some of these no longer exist, only the names being remembered.'

Thursday, 13 March 2014

Old Ordnance Survey Maps

Old Ordnance Survey maps to view online.

Crunwear area from a screen shot.

John Lloyd on Lampeter Velfrey War Memorial




Country Lanes



Country Lanes
Old 'Roman Road' behind Llanteg Hall

From an article in the Saturday Mail magazine – summer 2013 by Monty Halls
Country lanes, forged by our forebears over many millennia and still alive with the ghosts of the past.
These are timeless tracks, worn deep into the earth by foot, hoof, wheel and vehicle.
They cross our countryside in a network that shows the passage of ancient routes from village to village, meeting then dividing, sometimes converging on a single point,  a confluence of thousands of years and journeys.
Some country lanes are less a road and more of a canyon with high walls that retain the cool air of night yet become a stifling furnace when the sun is high in the sky.
We tend to take our history for granted in the UK which makes us immune to our surroundings, to the footsteps in which we tread.
So walking an old lane think of those who have gone before. 
There is a reason these lanes are cut deep into the earth; it is the long passage of time and trade.  The lane would have started out as a simple path, the first steps would have flattened the grass on the surface, over time it would have become a known route and the grass would have given way to bare soil, worn away by regular footsteps.  Countless trips back and forth, as one century passed into another, saw the track worn away.
Dark and mysterious, packed with wildlife and echoing with the muffled footsteps of the ghosts of those who have gone before.

Monday, 10 March 2014

Llanteg Area during WW2

The Invasion of Wiseman’s Bridge
by Mark Lewis of Tenby Museum (published in PembRokeshire Life Magazine July 2013)
‘This important event required strict security.

Restrictions were imposed along the coast from Tenby to Laugharne and inland to a depth of six miles.

Extra restrictions were put on civilian movement.  

A curfew operated from dusk until dawn between July 12 and August 9.  

Civilians were forbidden to carry cameras, binoculars or telescopes and had to carry their identity cards with them at all times, and on-the-spot checks were made to see that these regulations were being followed.

Mail, telegraph and telephone, were subject to censorship.  

Control points were set up on all roads and railway stations leading into the area.’


Monday, 18 November 2013

John Lloyd - to get War Gravestone at Lovett, Alberta

Thanks to Johnnie Bachusky from Canada an article was published in the Canadian Post on 9th November which related John Lloyd;s story and also stated that the Commonwealth War Grave Commission intend to provide Private Lloyd with a memorial at Lovett - not on his exact grave as we are not sure which one it is, but on a vacant plot within the tiny Lovett Cemetary in Alberta.


Wednesday, 8 May 2013

John Lloyd - newly recognised WW1 Casualty - 2012

The success story for 2012 was being able to get John Lloyd officially recognised as a War Casualty after 93 years and have him remembered at our Remembrance Day ceremony for the first time.  

Our next mission is to try and locate his grave at Lovett, Alberta.


c. Derek Lloyd

JOHN LLOYD
died 10th November 1918

John Lloyd married into the James family of Ruelwall, Llanteg.

Sarah Jane, John Lloyd and two of their children
c. Derek Lloyd


Gravestone at Crunwere Church - where four of his children are buried
John Lloyd has a gravestone in Crunwere which just states D. Lovat, Canada, with him dying on 11/11/1918 aged 44yrs - four of his children are also buried in the grave.  


Large family gravestone at Eglwyscummin
John also has a family gravestone at Eglwyscummin Church, also stating he was buried at Lovat.

John enlisted in Canada:
John Lloyd
Regimental # 101679, joined 22 Feb 1916, Edmonton, Alberta
66th Overseas Battalion, Edmonton Guards
Embarkation, 66th Battalion, Halifax, SS Olympic—April 28, 1916
Giving his next of kin as at Ruelwall.



c. Steve John


c. Derek Lloyd


John Lloyd is on the Lampeter Velfrey War Memorial – but he does not show up on any list of War Casualties – either here or Canada.

John reached France on 6 July 1916 and was sent to 1st Canadian Entrenching Battalion in the field.  John paraded sick on 5 Dec 1916 after "exposure to shell fire on the Somme".  On 3rd Sept 1917 John paraded sick again at Vimy Ridge.  He was immediately sent back to base hospital, and then invalided back to England.  He was in Etaples 12 days, Bethnal Green 12 days, Bromley 10 days, Bushy Park 16 days, Buxton 2 months, and Liverpool 5 weeks.  

                                                                   Llandovery Castle



He was then invalided back to Canada on the Llandovery Castle on 28th Feb 1918, to Halifax.  He was in hospital in Wetaskiwin, Alberta for 2 months,  He was discharged from service on 17th Aug 1918 at Calgary, with the intention of living in Edmonton.  

John died on 11th Nov 1918.  Death was attributed to military service.  According to the gravestones John died on 11th November but his death certificate records the 10th.

In 1925 a scroll and plaque were sent to his widow. 

20 June 2012 - Thanks to the work of Steve John and relatives John Lloyd has now been officially recognised as a Casualty of War:


Canadian Book of Remembrance



We are still trying to locate John's actual grave in Lovett Cemetery, Alberta, but have been kindly sent these images of the graveyard and Ghost Town and Mine:

Lovett Mine c. Johnnie Bachusky www.nobleghosts.com

Lovett Ghost Town c. Johnnie Bachusky www.nobleghosts.com


Lovett cemetery c. Johnnie Bachusky www.nobleghosts.com


Monday, 6 August 2012

Purser Graves - Amroth


Group of Purser Graves.  
Anne Jane Purser's is the angel, her young daughter is the centre cross and the one on the left s a relation.
Centre - Miriam Lucie Elsie Purser 1882-3.



French inscription on the grave of Anne Jane Purser's daughter by her first marriage.  
Ines De Villeneuve 1964-80.



Base of angel headstone for Anne Jane Purser
1836-1903.
She was living at Llanteglos when she died.




Wednesday, 29 February 2012

Llanteg Milestones


I have set up a new blog dedicated to our milestones and boundary stone at:
www.llantegmilestones.blogspot.com

Have just found out that the boundary stone is Grade 11 listed - but it is shown under Eglwyscummin parish, Carmarthenshire:

Wednesday, 11 January 2012

Old Map of Barriets Area


This old map was passed to us at Christmas.
It is Crown Copyright and dated 31 August 1945 by the West Cambrian Power Co. Ltd.
The line of the new power cable is shown as a red line across the fields marked in blue.
Scale - 6 inches to a mile.

Saturday, 7 May 2011

B.P. Pipeline through Llanteg - 1960s

The B.P. Trading Act of 1957 set out plans for the 60 mile pipline from Angle Bay in Pembrokeshire to Llandarcy - this was made more urgent by the Suez Crisis.
Large oil tanks were built at Popton and the terminal came into opertation in 1960, being officially opened in 1961.

Sketch from April 2011 Pembrokshire Life

The pipeline ran through Llanteg - and there were concrete and metal stiles in the hedges along its route.  It ran across Trenewydd Lane in front of Sandy Grove, then crossed fields behind Middleton.
I'm sure others will have more knowledge of this tham I do - but I remember the 'new' stiles in Middleton hedges when I stayed int he 1960s, and the fuss we had when selling the property to find documents relating to the pipeline!
According to http://www.pembrokeshirevirtualmuseum.co.uk/main_menu/trade_and_industry/oil/sites/bp.html the B.P. oil terminal at Angle Bay closed in 1985.

Wednesday, 4 May 2011

Pembrokeshire Life - Stokes Ring May 2011

We have a one page article in the May 2011 issue of Pembrokeshire Life regarding the Stokes family ring which the History Society has acquired.

Friday, 18 March 2011

Mills - from Amroth Hub Document

The following on local Mills has been taken from:
http://www.experiencepembrokeshire.com/history-archaeology/heritage-pdf-documents/community-heritage-audits/amroth-community-audit-report?set_language=en

They are reproduced as written and have not been checked for accuracy.

596 GARNESS MILL
Post Medieval MILL
SN1854609538 Open Countryside
Condition: Damaged Accessibility: Visible from road/path
Visitor Potential: Medium Interpretation Potential: Medium
Garness Mill is a former corn mill. It seems to have been known as Gardener's Mill in 1723. It is shown as Garnas Mill on the 1831 Ordnance Survey map and appears on later 19th century maps as a working corn mill. It would appear to have gone out of use as a working mill by, or during the early 20th century and is now a private dwelling.
Public footpath SP10/7/1 passes by the mill house,
NPRN: 0 PRN: 18780
Listed Building Number: Scheduled Ancient Monument Number:
Ownership: Private Management: Private


597 LEDGERLAND WOOLLEN MILL
Post Medieval WOOLLEN MILL
SN1834008673 Open Countryside
Substantial
Destruction
Condition: Accessibility: Visible from road/path
Visitor Potential: Medium Interpretation Potential: Medium
Records show that there was a water mill producing woollen cloth at Ledgerland during the 18th century. Its exact location is not proven, but a ruined cottage at this site is a possible location. It is shown as an occupied dwelling on the 1831 Ordnance Survey map, but had been abandoned by the 1880s. The last person to operate the mill was one James Price, who is said to have built Ledgerland, which stands on higher ground to the north, when he left the woollen mill.
Public footpath SP10/10/1 runs past this site.
NPRN: 0 PRN: 0
Listed Building Number: Scheduled Ancient Monument Number:
Ownership: Private Management: Private

I have included the two following for local interest but they are in Amroth parish:

583 AMROTH MILL
Post Medieval CORN MILL
SN1713007290 Open Countryside
Condition: Damaged Accessibility: Visible from road/path
Visitor Potential: Low Interpretation Potential: Medium
William Rees, on his 1932 map of Wales and the Borders in the 14th Century shows a water mill close to this site. 19th century maps show that Amroth Mill was a corn mill, which worked up until the late 19th century, but it is was disused by the time of the 1905 Ordnance Survey map.
In the HER, PRN3659 refers to the medieval castle of Earewere.
NPRN: 0 PRN: 18816
Listed Building Number: Scheduled Ancient Monument Number:
Ownership: Private Management: Private


585 FACTORY
Post Medieval WOOLLEN MILL
SN1752907608 Open Countryside
Substantial
Destruction
Condition: Accessibility: Visible from road/path
Visitor Potential: Medium Interpretation Potential: High
Although there are records of a fulling mill in this area, which was out of use by 1481, its location is not known. During the 19th century, there was a woollen mill at Factory, the original mill possibly being alongside the leat serving Amroth Mill (which lies down the valley to the southwest) and now surviving only as ruins in the woods. Factory is the name of the house alongside the present trackway upslope from the woollen factory , which was out of use by the 1870s.
A footpath passes between Factory House and the old woollen factory.
NPRN: 0 PRN: 18817
Listed Building Number: Scheduled Ancient Monument Number:
Ownership: Private Management: Private

Thursday, 17 March 2011

Blackheath Enclosure

Blackheath sits on the site of an Iron Age enclosure
the Iron Age was from about 500 BC to when the Roamn's arrived. 
View on Google maps.

Picture from Wikipedia

Is an Iron Age Roundhouse what would have sat inside the enclosure?  Or would it have been more defensive?

Below is some information off the web. 
If any copyright is infringed by my posting this here it will be removed if I am made aware of it.

A SURVEY OF DEFENDED ENCLOSURES IN PEMBROKESHIRE 2006-07
http://www.cambria.org.uk/projects/prehistdefenc/pemsn10sn11sn12.pdf
Prepared by Cambria Archaeology for Cadw
REPORT NO. 2007/01 PROJECT RECORD NO. 54269
March 2007
3805 LLANTEG ENCLOSURE
PRN 3805 NGR SN17421001
SITE NAME LLANTEG ENCLOSURE
SITE TYPE DEFENDED ENCLOSURE FORM Documents

PERIOD Iron Age CONDITION E


DESCRIPTION
Llanteg Enclosure has been virtually destroyed. It was formerly defined by a hedge-bank with a low shallow ditch to the northeast and southwest sides. A turnpike road was driven through the enclosure in the early 19th century and a small farmhouse with outbuildings had been built in the centre of the enclosure by at least the end of the 19th century. The house has been extended and gardens and a yard created to the west and north of it. Road widening and straightening in 1984 effectively removed what remained on the enclosure on to the south. This work exposed the clay-loam bank, which had a possible burnt layer towards its base. All that remains of the enclosure is a hedge-bank defining its northeast side - presumably on the defensive bank - and possible a small portion of the interior just within this bank.
The site lies on level ground at c. 145m above sea level.
K Murphy 3 November 2006


Ground photograph looking NW at hedge defining the E side of a small enclosure 3805



From - http://www.experiencepembrokeshire.com/history-archaeology/heritage-pdf-documents/community-heritage-audits/amroth-community-audit-report?set_language=en

LLANTEG ENCLOSURE
Iron Age DEFENDED ENCLOSURE
SN1742010010 Llanteg
Substantial
Destruction
Condition: Accessibility: Visible from road/path
Visitor Potential: Low Interpretation Potential: High

This Iron Age enclosure has been almost completely destroyed as a result of 19th and 20th century road-building. During the 1830s, the turnpike road was built through the centre of the enclosure. Subsequently, Blackheath farmhouse and outbuildings were built on the site. In 1984, road improvements saw further damage inflicted, which means that now hardly any vestiges of the monument remain. It is one of a series of similar Iron Age enclosures which dot the south Pembrokeshire landscape.
NPRN: 0 PRN: 3805
Listed Building Number: Scheduled Ancient Monument Number:
Ownership: Private
Management: Private

Friday, 11 March 2011

Old Press Reports

Having a sort-out and found the following clippings from when we did our first couple of books.

Press from the Carmarthen Journal for our first book - a great write-up

Press for our second book - this was before the milestone by Oaklands
was refurbished and we were crouching among the brambles!

Award from PLANED

This is old news (possibly 2000/1 - will have to check) but I have recently come across this photograph. 

We went to Saundersfoot to collect £250 prize for a write-up we did of what our group had been doing for its first year or so.

Eirwen Davies Trenewydd, Audrey James Rose Park,
Judith Lloyd Oaklands (Teasurer) and Ruth Roberts Sandy Grove (Secretary)

Tuesday, 8 March 2011

John Howell, Trenewydd - died 1727

Embedded in the outside wall of Crunwere Church's south transept is a gravestone which reads:

Near this wall lies the body of John Howell A.M.
The son of Reynold Howell of Trenewyed, Gent.
He was sometime Rector of New Radnor but in the year of Trial 1691 was deprived
of all that he could not keep with a good conscience.
Who died Jan. 17th 1727, aged 70.
(A stone tablet in memory of a non-juring clergyman)


Searching online I have found the following:

Howell, Johns. Regin., of Trenewydd, co. Pembroke, pleb. Trinity Coll., matric. 20 March, 1673-4, aged 16; B.A. 29 Jan., 1677-8, M.A. 1680; brother of Arthur 1676. See Fasti, ii. 373.

Howell, Arthurs. Reginald, of Trenewydd, co. Pembroke, pleb. Christ Church, matric. 18 March, 1675-6, aged 16; died 17 April, 1676; brother of John 1674. See Gutch, i. 513. [10]

From: 'Alumni Oxonienses, 1500-1714: Horrobin-Hyte', Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714: Abannan-Kyte (1891), pp. 748-784. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117067 Date accessed: 08 March 2011.


From - http://melocki.org.uk/diocese/New_Radnor.html

1685 Apr 1 John Howell, M.A. patron - The king. previously John Hergest. cause of leaving - Death.


1690 Dec 13 James Gwyn, M.A. patron - The king and queen. previously John Howells. cause of leaving - Deprivation.


From - Crunwear Wills - http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/PEM/Crunwear/Willsindex.html
1686 (ref - 16) Howel, John, New Radnor, Tutor, Guardian & Rector.

From - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11099a.htm
Non-Jurors
The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, and their successors under the Protestant Succession Act of that year. Their leaders on the episcopal bench (William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishops Francis Turner of Ely, William Lloyd of Norwich, Thomas White of Peterborough, William Thomas of Worcester, Thomas Ken of Bath and Wells, John Lake of Chichester, and Thomas Cartwright of Chester) were required to take the oath before 1 August, under pain of suspension, to be followed, if it were not taken by 1 February, by total deprivation. Two of them died before this last date, but the rest, persisting in their refusal, were deprived. Their example was followed by a multitude of the clergy and laity, the number of the former being estimated at about four hundred, conspicuous among whom were George Hickes, Dean of Worcester, Jeremy Collier, John Kettlewell, and Robert Nelson. A list of these Non-jurors is given in Hickes's "Memoirs of Bishop Kettlewell", and one further completed in Overton's "Non-jurors".

Saturday, 5 March 2011

Llanteg's Roll of Honour

From - LLANTEG: THE DAYS BEFORE YESTERDAY


(Taken from the Roll of Honour book which was in Crunwere Church - all spellings are as they appear.  Some people are form outside the parish.)

LLANTEG VILLAGERS WHO SERVED IN THE TWO WORLD WARS


Men of the parish and district who died in the Great War 1914-18:-

Davies William, Private, Bevelin

Glanville H.S., Private, Lanteg


Men killed in action in the Second World War 1939-45:

Owen L.G.J., S.O. R.A.F, Syke Farm

Mason J., A.B. R.N., Ruel Wall


Men who served their country in the First World War:

Allen W.T. Private Rose Cottage

Beynon William Driver Gorse

Callen A. Private Longlane

Callen W. Driver Longlane

Connol William Private Greenacre

Collingwood William Private Three Wells

Davies J. Private Blackheath

Glanville L. Private Lanteg

Glanville R. Engineers Lanteg

George R.G. Private Downs

Hodge A. Private Barriets

Howells William Private Woodreef

James B. Private Cabin

James C. Gunner Summer Brook

James F. Private Cabin

James H. Gunner Blackheath

James J. Corporal Ruel Wall

James T. Corporal Ruel Wall

James William Gunner Broomy Lake

James William H. Corporal Cabin

Jones G.S. Private Heatherland

Jones H. Private Heatherland

Jones N.G. 2nd Lieut. Heatherland

Lewis J. Private Barn

Lewis T. Private Folly

Mortimer J.S. Sergeant Ledgerland

Phillips A.G. Private Corner

Phillips D. Gunner Corner

Phillips T.D. Captain Crafty

Phillips T.W. Sapper Corner

Phillips William Driver Corner

Phillips W.C. Private Crafty

Reynolds S. Driver Belle Vue

Scourfield J. L. Corp. Pantglas


Men and women who served their country in the Second World War:

Allen N. L.A.C. Oxford

Brinsden A.H. Corporal Stanwell

Bevan K. L.A.C. Brownslade

Davies W.H. Driver Brynely

Davies N.H. Corp. R.A.C. Brynely

Davies E.G. Corp. R.A.C. Brynely

Eyden J. Private Syke Farm

George A. L.A.C. Downs

Glanville H.R. Driver Lanteg West

Hawes Miss M. A.T.S. Subaltern Heatherland

Howells A. Driver The Valley

Jones N.J.G. Colonel Heatherland

Jones G.S.G. Major Heatherland

James W.H. Gunner Blackheath

James H.R. L.A.C. Blackheath

James W.G. Gunner Bevlin

James H.G. Gunner Bevlin

Mortimer Miss D. W.A.A.F Summer Brook

Oriel A. Driver Garness

Owens V.M. R.A.F. Syke Farm

Phelps G. A.C. Milton Back

Williams G. Capt. Lanteglos

Williams Mrs R. Red Cross Lanteglos

Wolff T. S. African Navy School House

Wolff Miss S. W.A.A.F.

Section Officer School House

Wolff D. W.O. R.A.F. School House

Wolff Miss K. W.A.A.F. School House

Saturday, 26 February 2011

George Morris Connections with Crunwere 1890s

My father was George Ivor Mervyn Morris from Melinau, my aunt lived next door to Rose Cottage. My father's siblings are now all deceased, but my cousins and their families are still in the area.

I think only my dad and uncle Clem (Clement Edward) ever left the area. My father left after the war, spent some time in Dorchester then Liverpool.

We visited as children and I hope to revisit this year. I still have family there and am at present working on my family history.

My grandparents were George Morris, who lived and worked at Mountain, Crunwere. George gives his place of birth as St Daniels. Research now shows that he may have been baptised in Pembroke St Mary in June 1872 along with his twin James, his mother being Martha Morris of Furston (or Furzton), Monkton.


West Llanteg (Lanteague) Farm - on left of road going up to Tavernspite.


East Llanteg (Lanteague) Farm - on right of road going up to Tavernspite.

(Not sure which farm George worked on in 1891 but it would have been either East or West Llanteg.)

On the 1891 census George is working with another family of Morrises at Lanteague, Crunwear. George married Martha Thomas in 1893 who lived and worked at Trenewydd, Crunwear, her father was Richard Thomas and she was born in Laugharne.

By the 1901 census the family were at Lampeter Velfrey with George working as a navvy.

My aims are twofold, firstly I would like to return my father’s memory to his birthplace and secondly to have knowledge of the family and the area for my children and grandchild.

Sally Mongomery
Daughter of George I M Morris
Who married Sarah Jane Newton in St Clements church Liverpool in 1944 and fathered 3 children.

Thursday, 17 February 2011

Henry John and Sarah Llewellyn Graves at Amroth Churchyard

We have looked for the following two stones for a few years, because they relate to ancestors of many of our Llanteg families.  Now, thanks to the endeavours of Carol Mason, we have received these lovely pictures from Ted White in Canada. 

These two stones are supposedly under the large tree by the north gate of Amroth churchyard, but we have all failed to find them  so well done Ted! 

Ted also goes on to say:
'In the north east corner of St Elidyr's in Amroth is a very large beech tree.  Beneath its shady branches is a scattered group of gravestones marking the final resting place of many of the JOHN family.
Some stones are small and bear only initals, CJ and SJ for instance: others are almost covered by the build up of debris at the edge of the churchyard.  A few are legible and record the deaths of husbands and wives of the JOHN family, amongst them are:'



Here lieth the Body Of Sara John wife Of Henry John who Departed this life December 17th 1826
[No age is shown]
Picture by Ted White



In memory of Henry John who Died October 23 1822 age 72 years
Picture Ted White

On 28th February 2011 Ruth went down hoping to find the stones, but was met with a carpet of holly branches.  However some pictures were taken which might prove of use in the future:
Two JOHN graves -the tree is on the left.

Row of small graves to the east of the tree - looks like the back fo them.

There is one small grave hidden in the centre of this shot - the tree is on the left.



The first of the large JOHN garves from above.

Small headstone behind the large JOHN stone.

Bad shot but you can see the hidden small stone.



Second large JOHN gravestone.

The hidden small stone again - in centre of shot.

JOHN grave is on the right - large tree on left.

Our 'family tree' wth all its overgrown holly at its base.

Base of tree at Amroth - I don't think this grave is for JOHNs.